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Anúncio oficial do FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE

Posted by gondim | Posted in FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 30-09-2013

Tags:, ,


Glen Barber acabou de anunciar oficialmente o FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE e o que veio de novo. Abaixo o anúncio oficial em inglês.

The FreeBSD Release Engineering Team is pleased to announce the availability
of FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE.  This is the second release from the stable/9 branch,
which improves on the stability of FreeBSD 9.1 and introduces some new
features.  Some of the highlights:

* The ZFS filesystem now supports TRIM when used on solid state
* The virtio(4) drivers have been added to the GENERIC kernel
configuration for amd64 and i386 architectures.
* The ZFS filesystem now supports lz4 compression.
* OpenSSL has been updated to version 0.9.8y.
* DTrace hooks have been enabled by default in the GENERIC kernel.
* DTrace has been updated to version 1.9.0.
* Sendmail has been updated to version 8.14.7.
* OpenSSH has been updated to version 6.2p2.
* Import unmapped I/O support from head/.

For a complete list of new features and known problems, please see the
online release notes and errata list, available at:

For more information about FreeBSD release engineering activities,
please see:


FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE is now available for the amd64, i386, ia64, powerpc,
powerpc64, and sparc64 architectures.

FreeBSD 9.2 can be installed from bootable ISO images or over the
network.  Some architectures also support installing from a USB memory
stick.  The required files can be downloaded via FTP as described in the
section below.  While some of the smaller FTP mirrors may not carry all
architectures, they will all generally contain the more common ones such
as amd64 and i386.

MD5 and SHA256 hashes for the release ISO and memory stick images are
included at the bottom of this message.

The purpose of the images provided as part of the release are as follows:

dvd1: This contains everything necessary to install the base FreeBSD
operating system, the documentation, and a small set of pre-built
packages aimed at getting a graphical workstation up and running.
It also supports booting into a “livefs” based rescue mode.  This
should be all you need if you can burn and use DVD-sized media.

disc1: This contains the base FreeBSD operating system. It also supports
booting into a “livefs” based rescue mode.  There are no pre-built

bootonly: This supports booting a machine using the CDROM drive but
does not contain the support for installing FreeBSD from the
CD itself.  You would need to perform a network based install
(e.g. from an FTP server) after booting from the CD.

memstick: This can be written to an USB memory stick (flash drive) and
used to do an install on machines capable of booting off USB
drives.  It also supports booting into a “livefs” based rescue
mode.  There are no pre-built packages.

As one example of how to use the memstick image, assuming the USB drive
appears as /dev/da0 on your machine something like this should work:

# dd if=FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img of=/dev/da0 bs=10240 conv=sync

Be careful to make sure you get the target (of=) correct.

FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE can also be purchased on CD-ROM or DVD from several
vendors.  One of the vendors that will be offering FreeBSD 9.2-based
products is:

~   FreeBSD Mall, Inc.


At the time of this announcement the following FTP sites have
FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE available.

However before trying these sites please check your regional mirror(s)
first by going to:


Any additional mirror sites will be labeled ftp2, ftp3 and so on.

More information about FreeBSD mirror sites can be found at:

For instructions on installing FreeBSD or updating an existing machine to
9.2-RELEASE please see:


FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE will be supported until 2014-09-30.
The End-of-Life dates can be found at:

Other Projects Based on FreeBSD

There are many “third party” Projects based on FreeBSD.  The Projects
range from re-packaging FreeBSD into a more “novice friendly” distribution
to making FreeBSD available on Amazon’s EC2 infrastructure.  For more
information about these Third Party Projects see:


Many companies donated equipment, network access, or man-hours to
support the release engineering activities for FreeBSD 9.2 including
The FreeBSD Foundation, Yahoo!, NetApp, Internet Systems Consortium,
Sentex Communications, New York Internet, Juniper Networks, and

The release engineering team for 9.2-RELEASE includes:

Ken Smith <[email protected]>    Release Engineering Lead
Marcus von Appen <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Glen Barber <[email protected]>        Release Engineering, 9.2-RELEASE Release Engineer
Konstantin Belousov <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Joel Dahl <[email protected]>        Release Engineering
Marc Fonvieille <[email protected]>    Release Engineering, Documentation
Steven Kreuzer <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Erwin Lansing <[email protected]>    Package Building
Xin Li <[email protected]>        Release Engineering, Security
Simon L. B. Nielsen <[email protected]>    Security Officer Emeritus
Josh Paetzel <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Colin Percival <[email protected]>    Security Officer Emeritus
Craig Rodrigues <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Hiroki Sato <[email protected]>        Release Engineering, Documentation
Gleb Smirnoff <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Dag-Erling Smørgrav <[email protected]>    Security Officer
Marius Strobl <[email protected]>    Release Engineering
Robert Watson <[email protected]>    Release Engineering, Security


FreeBSD is a registered trademark of The FreeBSD Foundation.

ISO Image Checksums

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso) = 63db06d3f468d219b308bb3fbc3f48e791134481fb1abf39e9b1ee415dcfc099
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-disc1.iso) = a8c1751b83646530148766618a89a97009e7500e7057a5cbe3afd74ef480c915
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso) = 36c99ac1ffb90f2272df1bf10cafec999fde1b1a6bd289b5583836639c3639ae
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img) = fbc0c46f2db8c347145ee7c8308e4f3058dc5ec3155a9fb51d0f0e52ab2bf5cb

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso) = 2338f255d0ddc4659d04545a3c27bfa1
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-disc1.iso) = cde180e3c5e3e370c97598a4feccb5b4
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso) = 21448c2688ba938b42c1727449d69750
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img) = 8a7f0ee3cb2570785b2d0a760d99bad6

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-bootonly.iso) = e2df14515911ab964a587c4ae5e23882c71908c4e589ae57f7848399232c161d
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-disc1.iso) = 76093c27288f0ab939a5de14b621ec8eb1420d96343132c2b7c382747d35b67c
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-dvd1.iso) = a1bba5668792cfc8197c0f81b28cdd17e912a1ae5816887f8518bf1536a99af8
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-memstick.img) = aa635578fea1136da680420afaab21a8e0b7c39541566d28f468d6ebb7a1e3a8

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-bootonly.iso) = c868d09dace9ec2d673fd62cbd1305b4
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-disc1.iso) = ba7ba7943177aee9626df228fb1ee6c2
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-dvd1.iso) = 917104df8d559f2ec981e98bfdf78e05
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-i386-memstick.img) = affea2f784472cfbed9d16a6fdeab5ce

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-bootonly.iso) = 138b6f9fe7bbad418db956a53539ff75f77c918aedaf7fcc1d4960aa2ccca476
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-disc1.iso) = 906cfc5012504501547aa0c89292e66047faaed34f18e79594ab95635c43f6c2
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-memstick.img) = b178d6466f4b2eb9af0520eb8b434ce98ecab11b9d24bf6ad9478a30f9875531

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-bootonly.iso) = 2ef154556774c55ce0a5a27c7a674859
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-disc1.iso) = aa06455bfd9f54f1257c6b8484e81334
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-ia64-memstick.img) = b047ea9791272a4fbc66cd9f401d6122

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-bootonly.iso) = 89fea7d441a71b96def24a80815566936b7b6eaab640030ae78518001806d626
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-disc1.iso) = b5f5adc9ab2392c2796881553582a1da1cfa99c62b62b57a3325fc7e6a7259c4
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-memstick.img) = 3951ab28d6226f9c32a71f6d81d6ad9f9d05c9af5d11cf00118380f6ba20f282

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-bootonly.iso) = 84ba491526faf1115827ee3c81593f92
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-disc1.iso) = 1a1f683a69d20419834d056d43c8e3de
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-memstick.img) = dd959ede1dff0971334d3722db8c8bcc

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-bootonly.iso) = 092fa817a0a44fb49d05ed7aae44d98e78f4e3e0fc6e0297ee0d11ec8f8ccf37
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-disc1.iso) = 56daf1f49bff7ee9e31c3255170fe2373c8674cfce1c560e78deff4ae81c505d
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-memstick.img) = be87c9edaa0b343a1223ebfb68dd161a023e287e067dd6550198c4ac23d47062

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-bootonly.iso) = c914b221a8f09ac8d004aa4d7db710a0
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-disc1.iso) = f471466df756ae85162fb8bb794d007a
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-powerpc-powerpc64-memstick.img) = c6b739c889dd94e3ed3ac8ef277ced91

SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-sparc64-bootonly.iso) = 76813e3a5b400ea56533a3d5762f76284746a736281b6e1bce882d9f0e2dd076
SHA256 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-sparc64-disc1.iso) = 0a15095210058fa7c1572102e6af49407462fcd670d28a3af9dfc154efaeb72e

MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-sparc64-bootonly.iso) = ae21e0dc63aa0d6327f44c733705c055
MD5 (FreeBSD-9.2-RELEASE-sparc64-disc1.iso) = 7ce9c00d4b6e23124062cc2be8b56a74


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Posted by gondim | Posted in Dicas, FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 27-09-2013

Tags:, ,


Embora ainda não seja oficial, tudo indica que a versão 9.2-RC4 virou de fato a 9.2-RELEASE. Acredito que se não acontecer nada de absurdo, essa será sem dúvida a RELEASE final. O indício disso poderá ser visto por quem atualizar o releng/9.2 via SVN nesse momento, pois o arquivo que mostra a versão do FreeBSD foi atualizado conforme abaixo:

# cat /usr/src/sys/conf/

if [ “X${BRANCH_OVERRIDE}” != “X” ]; then
SYSDIR=$(dirname $0)/..

Se repararem o BRANCH deixou de ser RC4 e virou RELEASE.

É isso aí pessoal, passei só para dar a notícia.  🙂

Agora é esperarmos o anúncio oficial do 9.21-RELEASE e aguardarmos ansiosos o 10.0-RELEASE.


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vBSDCon 2013

Posted by gondim | Posted in Dicas, FreeBSD, Segurança, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 23-09-2013

Tags:, ,


A vBSDCon é um evento que está sendo promovido pela Verisign nos dias 25 à 27 de Outubro na Virginia – EUA.

Vão haver mesas-redondas, sessões educativas, discussões sobre melhores práticas e oportunidades exclusivas de networking.

À quem se destina esse evento:

  • Desenvolvedores
  • Engenheiros
  • Administradores
  • Inovadores

A agenda do evento pode ser vista aqui.

Alguns expositores de nome: HP, iXSystems e Juniper Networks


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Nascimento da Comunidade OpenZFS

Posted by gondim | Posted in FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 17-09-2013

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Hoje está sendo anunciado o  OpenZFS: o verdadeiro sucessor open source para o projeto ZFS.

O ZFS é o sistema de arquivos mais avançado do mundo, em desenvolvimento ativo há mais de uma década. O recente desenvolvimento continuou open, e OpenZFS é o novo nome formal para esta comunidade aberta de desenvolvedores, usuários e empresas melhorando, usando e construindo no ZFS. Fundado por membros das comunidades Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, e Illumos, incluindo Matt Ahrens, um dos dois autores originais do ZFS. A comunidade OpenZFS reúne mais de uma centena de desenvolvedores de software a partir dessas plataformas.

O anúncio oficial pode ser visto aqui.

Seja bem vindo e que o ZFS continue evoluindo ainda, por muitos e muitos anos.  🙂



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pfSense 2.1 lançado!

Posted by gondim | Posted in Dicas, FreeBSD, Segurança, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 15-09-2013

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pfSense é uma distribuiçāo livre, open source e personalizada do FreeBSD adaptada para ser usada como firewall e roteador. Além de ser uma poderosa e flexível plataforma de firewall e roteamento, ele inclui uma longa lista de recursos relacionados e um sistema de pacotes permitindo futuras expansões, sem acrescentar falhas e vulnerabilidades de segurança em potencial na base da distribuição. pfSense é um projeto popular com mais de 1 milhão de downloads desde seu início, inúmeras instalações que vão desde pequenas redes domésticas, protegendo desde um PC ou um Xbox, até grandes corporações, universidades e outras organizações protegendo milhares de dispositivos de rede.

O Projeto acabou de liberar uma nova versão com as seguintes melhorias:

Security Updates

Three FreeBSD security advisories are applicable to prior pfSense releases. These aren’t remotely exploitable in and of themselves, but anyone who can execute arbitrary code on your firewall could use one or more of these to escalate privileges.

IPv6 Support
IPv6 Added to many areas of the GUI. At least the following areas/features are IPv6-enabled. Others may work as well

  • Aliases (Firewall) – Aliases can contain both IPv4 and IPv6, only addresses relevant to a given rule will be used
  • CARP Failover
  • DHCP Server w/Prefix Delegation
  • 6to4 WAN
  • 6to4 WAN w/Prefix Delegation
  • 6rd WAN
  • 6rd WAN w/Prefix Delegation
  • DHCP6 WAN w/Prefix Delegation
  • DHCPv6 Relay
  • DNS Forwarder
  • Firewall Rules
  • Gateway Groups/Multi-WAN
  • Gateway Status (apinger)
  • GIF Tunnels
  • GRE Tunnels
  • GUI Access
  • IPsec
  • L2TP
  • Network Prefix Translation (NPt)
  • NTP
  • OpenVPN
  • Packet Capture
  • Router Advertisements
  • Routing
  • Server LB
  • Static IP
  • Syslog (remote)
  • Limiters (dummynet pipes)
  • Virtual IPs – IP Alias
  • Virtual IPs – CARP
  • DNS from RA
  • Accept RA when forwarding
  • Auth via RADIUS
  • Auth via LDAP
  • XMLRPC Sync
  • RRD Graphs
  • DHCP Static Mapping – Works by DUID
  • DynDNS ( hosted DNS, RFC2136, custom)
  • MAC OUI database lookup support for NDP and DHCPv6. (Was already present for DHCP leases and ARP table) requires the nmap package to be installed to activate

NOTE: Unlike earlier snapshots, BETA, etc, currently we do NOT flip the “Allow IPv6″ checkbox on upgrade, to preserve existing behavior. To activate IPv6 traffic, a user will have to flip this setting manually.


  • PBI (push button installer) package support – all of a package’s files and dependencies are kept in an isolated location so packages cannot interfere with one another in the way that was possible on 2.0.x and before using tbz packages
  • RIP (routed) moved to a package
  • OLSRD moved to a package
  • Unbound moved back to a package (Will try integration again for 2.2)
  • Increase the verboseness of the package reinstallation process in the system logs for a post-firmware-update package reinstallation operation

OS/Binary/Supporting Program Updates

  • Based on FreeBSD 8.3
  • Updated Atheros drivers
  • OpenSSL 1.0.1e (or later) used by OpenVPN, PHP, IPsec, etc
  • PHP to 5.3.x
  • OpenVPN to 2.3.x
  • Added mps kernel module
  • Added ahci kernel module
  • Updated ixgbe driver
  • Many other supporting packages have been updated

Dashboard & General GUI

  • Switch from Prototype to jQuery
  • Improved navigation and service status in the GUI (shortcut icons in each section to quickly access config, logs, status, control services, etc)
  • Multiple language support, a mostly-complete translation for Brazilian Portuguese is included
  • Read-only privilege to create a user that cannot modify config.xml
  • Dashboard update check can be disabled
  • Fixed theme inconsistencies between the login form and other parts of the GUI
  • Various fixes to pages to reduce potential exposure to certain CSRF/XSS vectors
  • Updated CSRF Magic
  • Set CSRF Magic token timeout to be the same as the login expiration
  • Added IE Mobile for WP8 to list of browsers that get an alternate theme at login
  • Truncate service status so long package descriptions cannot break formatting of the status table
  • Many fixes to HTML/XHTML to improve rendering and validation
  • Added a note to the setup wizard letting the user know that it can be canceled at any time by clicking the logo image
  • Make dashboard update check respect nanobsd-vga
  • Firewall Logs Widget filtering and column changes
  • Added totals for some dashboard widget meters (memory, swap, disk usage)
  • Changed dashboard display for states and mbufs to be meters, and to show usage as a percentage
  • Update dashboard mbuf count via AJAX
  • Show a count and layout of CPUs in the dashboard if multiple CPUs are detected

Captive Portal

  • Multi instance Captive Portal
  • Multiple Captive Portal RADIUS authentication sources (e.g. one for users, one for cards)
  • Logic fixes for voucher encryption
  • Many optimizations to Captive Portal processing, including a database backend and moving functions to a php module to improve speed
  • Optional Captive Portal user privilege
  • Add checks to make sure CP hard timeout is less than or equal DHCP server default lease time, to avoid issues with CP sessions being valid for incorrect IPs, and users switching IPs while they should still be connected to the portal
  • Fixes for captive portal voucher syncing on HTTPS with a custom port
  • Fixes for custom Captive Portal files leaving symlinks on the filesystem after files were removed
  • Added MAC OUI database lookup support to CP status (requires nmap package to be installed)

OS/System Management

  • Ability to select serial port speed
  • Added a manual way to enable TRIM if someone needs it
  • Added a manual way to trigger a fsck on reboot
  • AES-NI support (Cryptographic Accelerator feature on new Intel/AMD CPUs) — Still experimental, not supported by some areas of the OS yet.
  • Support for certain thermal sensors via ACPI, coretemp, and amdtemp
  • System startup beep can be disabled
  • Separate powerd setting for when on battery
  • Add optional ability to change the size of RAM disks for /var/ and /tmp/ for systems that have RAM to spare
  • Add optional ability for full installs to use RAM disks for /var/ and /tmp/ as is done on NanoBSD. Reduces overall writes to the media, should be more SSD-friendly
  • Use a custom sysDescr for snmp similar to m0n0wall’s format.
  • Added tunable to allow disabling net.inet.udp.checksum – disabling UDP checksums can improve performance, but can also have negative side effects
  • Added an mtree database with the correct default permissions, owner, sha256 sum, and some other information that is used to verify file permissions post-install and post-upgrade
  • APC is not started for PHP unless the system has over 512MB RAM, to reduce memory usage on systems with low RAM


  • DynDNS multi-WAN failover
  • IPsec multi-WAN failover
  • OpenVPN multi-WAN failover
  • Changed descriptions of the values for gateway monitoring
  • Display apinger (gateway monitoring daemon) as a service when it is enabled
  • Fixes for apinger to reload via SIGHUP properly, to avoid unnecessary restarts and loss of gateway status data
  • “State Killing on Gateway Failure” now kills ALL states when a gateway has been detected as down, not just states on the failing WAN. This is done because otherwise the LAN-side states were not killed before, and thus some connections would be in limbo, especially SIP.
  • Due to the change in its behavior, “State Killing on Gateway Failure” is now disabled by default in new configurations and is disabled during upgrade. If you want the feature, you’ll have to manually re-enable it post-upgrade.


  • NTP daemon now has GPS support


  • More IPsec hash algorithms and DH key groups added, “base” negotiation mode added
  • Mobile IPsec supports separate “split DNS” field and doesn’t just assume the default domain for split DNS domains
  • Properly ignore disabled IPsec phase 2 entries
  • NAT before IPsec (1:1 or many:1) outbound
  • Set default Proposal Check setting to Obey for mobile IPsec
  • LDAP and RADIUS are now possible authentication sources for IPsec mobile xauth
  • Delete the SPDs for an old IPsec entry when it is disabled or removed
  • Manage active SPDs on CARP secondary during sync
  • Add an option to force IPsec to reload on failover, which is needed in some cases for IPsec to fail from one interface to another.


  • OpenVPN can accept attributes from RADIUS via avpairs for things like inacl, outacl, dns-server, routes
  • OpenVPN checkbox for “topology subnet” to use one IP per client in tun mode
  • OpenVPN local/remote network boxes can accept multiple comma-separated networks
  • OpenVPN status for SSL/TLS server instances can now display the routing table for the VPN instance
  • OpenVPN now allows selecting “localhost” as the interface
  • Gateways are created for assigned OpenVPN server instances as well as clients
  • OpenVPN instances can run on the same port on different interfaces
  • OpenVPN status page now has service controls to show the status of the daemon running each instance, and allow for stop/start/restart from that page
  • Changed wording of the error displayed when a daemon is not running or the management interface of OpenVPN cannot be reached for an instance
  • OpenVPN client-specific Override cleanup fixes
  • Fixed double-click to edit of OpenVPN Client-Specific Overrides

NAT/Firewall Rules/Alias

  • Aliases separated into tabs for Hosts, Ports, and URLs to improve manageability
  • NAT reflection options re-worded to be less confusing
  • Adjustable source tracking timeout for Sticky connections
  • Firewall rules now support matching on ECE and CWR TCP flags
  • Filtering on ECE and CWR TCP flags is now possible
  • Added ICMP to protocol list when creating rdr (port forward) rules
  • Keep proper positioning of duplicated outbound NAT rules
  • When using the + at the top of Outbound NAT rules, add the rule to the top of the list and not the bottom
  • Fix ordering of interface group rules in the ruleset
  • Track time and [email protected] which created or updated a firewall, NAT port forward, or outbound NAT rule. If timestamp records are present, display them at the bottom of the rule page when editing. Have the created time/user pre-filled for automated rules such as NAT port forward associated rules and the switch from automatic to manual outbound NAT
  • Fix generation of manual outbound NAT rules so that localhost and VPN rules are not unnecessarily duplicated
  • Prevent using “block” for an alias name, as it is a pf reserved keyword
  • Allow TCP flags to be used on block or reject rules, since they are also valid there
  • Updates/fixes to DSCP handling
  • Allow advanced options state-related parameters to be used for TCP, UDP and ICMP — Formerly only allowed on TCP
  • Respect ports found in rules when policy route negation rules are made
  • Do not include disabled OpenVPN networks in generated policy route negation rules


  • Improved denoting of certificate purposes in the certificate list
  • Imported CRLs can be edited and replaced
  • Can set digest algorithm for CA/Certs (sha1, sha256, etc)
  • Default digest algorithm is now SHA256
  • Show CA and certificate start and end dates in the their listings
  • Correct tooltip description when adding a certificate
  • Relax input validation on a CA/Cert description since it is only used cosmetically in pfSense and not in the actual CA/cert subject
  • Allow removing blank/empty CA and Cert entries


  • More system log separation, Gateways, Routing, Resolver split into their own tabs
  • Firewall logs can now be filtered by many different criteria
  • Firewall logs can be sorted by any column
  • Firewall logs can optionally show the matching rule description in a separate column or in between rows
  • Firewall logs now show an indicator icon if the direction of a log entry is OUT rather than IN
  • Add popup DNS resolution method to firewall log view
  • Reduced logging output from IGMP proxy
  • Reduced logging output from DynDNS
  • Relocated filterdns logs to the resolver log file/tab
  • Relocated DHCP client logs to the DHCP tab
  • Fix system script logging so the correct script filename is printed in the log, rather than omitting the script name entirely
  • Add independent logging choices to disable logging of bogon network rules and private network rules. Add upgrade code to obey the existing behavior for users (if default block logging was disabled, so is bogon/private rule blocking)
  • Add a checkbox to disable the lighttpd log for people who don’t want their system log full of messages from lighttpd in some cases where they are filling the log unnecessarily


  • Add the ability to disable Growl or SMTP notifications but keep their settings intact, so the mail settings can be used for other purposes (packages, etc)
  • Add a test button to selectively test Growl or SMTP notifications without re-saving settings
  • Do not automatically generate a test notification on saving notification settings, as there are now individual test buttons

High Availability (CARP, pfsync, XML-RPC)

  • High Availability Synchronization options (Formerly known as “CARP Settings” under Virtual IPs Promoted to its own menu entry, System > High Avail. Sync
    • This is to make it easier to find, as well as make its purpose more clear. “CARP” is a part of High Availability, as is XMLRPC/pfsync state synchronization, but it’s a bit of a misnomer to refer to the sync settings as CARP
  • Ensure that the user does not remove only the last IP alias needed for a CARP VIP in an additional subnet
  • Disable pfsync interface when state synchronization is not in use
  • Fixed issues with DHCP server config synchronization ordering on secondary nodes
  • Restart OpenVPN servers when CARP transitions to master (clients were already restarted), otherwise if CARP was disabled, the servers would never recover
  • Removed the automatic pfsync rule, since the documentation always recommends adding it manually, and to add it behind the scenes with no way to block it can be counter-productive (and potentially insecure). If you did not follow the documentation and add your own pfsync or allow all rule on the sync interface, your state synchronization may break after this upgrade. Add an appropriate rule to the sync interface and it will work again.
  • Allow XMLRPC to sync IP Alias VIPs set to Localhost for their interface
  • In DHCP leases view, use the internal interface name (lan/opt1/etc) for the failover pool name, rather than a number. In certain cases the number can get out of sync between the two nodes, but the interface names will always match
  • Print the user-configured interface description next to the DHCP failover pool name, rather than only the internal name (lan/opt1/etc)
  • Add option to synchronize authentication servers (RADIUS, LDAP) via XMLRPC


  • Fixes for conf_mount_ro/conf_mount_rw reference checking/locking
  • Diag > NanoBSD now has button to switch media between read/write and read-only
  • Diag > NanoBSD now has a checkbox option to keep the media read/write
  • Fixed an issue with NanoBSD time zones not being properly respected by all processes the first reboot after a firmware upgrade

DHCP Server

  • DHCP can support multiple pools inside a single subnet, with distinct options per pool
  • DHCP can allow/deny access to a DHCP pool by partial (or full) MAC address
  • DHCP static mappings can have custom settings for gateway, DNS, etc
  • DHCP static mappings can optionally have a static ARP entry created
  • Fix Dynamic DNS updates from DHCP (ISC changed the config layout and requires zone declarations)
  • When crafting DHCP Dynamic DNS zones, do not use invalid DNS servers for the IP type (e.g. skip IPv6 DNS servers, because the DHCP daemon rejects them)
  • Added a config backup section choice for DHCPv6

Traffic Shaper

  • Schedules can now be used with limiters
  • Traffic shaper queues view updated
  • CoDel AQM Shaper Discipline
  • Allow PRIQ queues to be deleted.
  • Limiters now allow the user to set the mask they want to use, rather than assuming masking will always be per-IP. This allows per-subnet limits and similar
  • Limiters now allow setting masking for IPv6
  • Limiters now allow setting a burst size. This will pass X amount of data (TOTAL, NOT a rate) after an idle period before enforcing the limit

DNS Forwarder

  • In DNS forwarder, DNS query forwarding section with options for sequential and require domain
  • Allow a null forwarding server in DNS Forwarder domain overrides to ensure that queries stay local and never go outside the firewall
  • Add DNS Forwarder option to not forward private reverse lookups
  • DNS Forwarder domain overrides can now specify a source address for the query, to help resolve hostnames over VPN tunnels
  • DNS Forwarder now can change the port upon which it listens, for better cohabitation with other DNS software such as tinydns or unbound, if both are needed
  • DNS Forwarder now has an option to select the interfaces/IP Addresses upon which it will respond to queries
  • DNS Forwarder can now be set to only bind to specific IPv4 IPs (the underlying software, dnsmasq, does not support selectively binding to IPv6 IPs)
  • Improved handling of some dnsmasq custom config options

User Manager

  • Configurable RADIUS authentication timeout in User Manager
  • Print the error message from LDAP in the log for a bind failure. Helps track down reasons for authentication failures
  • Re-enable admin user if it’s disabled when ‘Reset webConfigurator password’ option is used.
  • Restrict maximum group name length to 16 characters or less (OS restriction)
  • Added option to UTF-8 encode LDAP parameters to improve handling of international characters
  • CDATA protected LDAP fields in config to avoid invalid XML with international characters


  • Fixed handling of DynDNS 25-day update and add ability to configure update interval
  • Added DynDNS No-IP Free Account Support
  • Add AAAA support to RFC2136 updates
  • Add cached IP support to RFC2136, add GUI button to force update for single host
  • Fix double click row to edit for RFC2136
  • Add option to RFC2136 to find/use the public IP if the interface IP is private. (Off by default to preserve existing behavior on upgrade)
  • Add server IP column and cached IP display to RFC2136 host list
  • Include RFC2136 hosts in DNS rebinding checks
  • Include both dyndns and RFC2136 hosts in referer check


  • Add ability to reverse-resolve IPs on Status > Traffic Graph in the rate table
  • Add ability to filter local or remote IPs on Status > Traffic Graph in the rate table
  • Change maximum values for RRD throughput to account for 10G links. Previous maximums would have caused blank spots on the graph during periods of high throughput
  • Fixes to RRD data resolution/retention
  • Added RRD Graph for mbuf clusters
  • Changed default RRD graph colors to be more visually distinct to help avoid ambiguity between multiple values on the same graph


  • Add option to the packet capture page to control whether or not promiscuous mode is used on the NIC. Rarely, NICs can have issues with promiscuous mode
  • Make parent interface and all VLANs share MTU
  • Fix cellular signal strength indicator
  • Fix PPP config cleanup when removing an interface
  • Disallow adding IP Alias or CARP VIP that would be the network or broadcast address of a subnet
  • Diagnostics > Sockets page to show open network sockets on the firewall
  • Diagnostics > Test Port page to perform a simple TCP connection test to see if a port is open
  • The pftop page has additional options to display more detailed information and sort it
  • Fixed conflict between static IP and static route in the same subnet
  • Do not apply static ARP entries to disabled interfaces
  • Do not allow bridge members to be assigned to itself
  • Changed Diag > Ping to use more available source addresses (CARP VIPs, IP Alias VIPs, OpenVPN interfaces, IPv6 Link-Local IPs)
  • Changed Diag > Traceroute to use more available source addresses (CARP VIPs, IP Alias VIPs, OpenVPN interfaces, IPv6 Link-Local IPs)
  • Changed shell prompt to not force background color, to be kinder to those not using black as a background in their terminal
  • Add a field to allow rejecting DHCP leases from a specific upstream DHCP server.
  • Updated the help system to handle some recent added files for 2.x and clean out some old/obsolete files
  • Allow selecting “Localhost” as an interface for IP Alias VIPs – this way you can make IP Alias VIPs for binding firewall services (e.g. Proxy, VPN, etc) in routed subnets without burning IPs for CARP unnecessarily
  • Updated list of mobile service providers
  • Fix max length for WPA passphrase. A 64-char passphrase would be rejected by hostapd and leave an AP in an open state
  • Added MSS clamping to the setup wizard
  • Add a setting to configure the filterdns hostname resolution interval (defaults to 300s, 5 minutes)
  • Omit IP mismatch warnings (e.g. behind a port forward, VPN IP, etc) if HTTP_REFERER protection is disabled
  • Fixes for selecting/detecting PPP devices such as 3G/4G modems
  • Rather than doing auto-detection to find serial PPP devices, use a glob when listing potential PPP serial devices
  • Prevent sshlockout from a crash/coredump if a format string like %s is present in the buffer
  • Fix SMART to see adaX devices
  • Fix SMART interpretation of output from SCSI devices
  • Fixed display of user SSH keys when present
  • Updated p0f database from FreeBSD
  • Fix UPnP Interface name selection to show the configured description entered by the user
  • Allow setting the external UPnP interface (must be default route WAN)
  • Fix Diag > Tables AJAX fadeOut after deletion for rows with CIDR mask format
  • Improve Diagnostics > Routes to fetch output via AJAX and have configurable filtering and sizes. Improves handling of large routing tables, such as a full BGP feed
  • When deleting or renaming a virtual server from the Load Balancer (relayd) manually clean up the NAT rules it leaves behind to avoid conflicts
  • Many, many bug fixes
  • Various fixes for typos, formatting, input validation, etc

SH/PHP Shell Scripts

  • Git package for gitsync is now pulled in as a pfSense-style PBI package
  • Added playback shell scripts added to enable/disable CARP
  • Added playback shell scripts to add and remove packages from the command line
  • Added playback shell script to remove shaper settings
  • Added playback shell script to control services from the command line
  • Add a simple CLI mail script capable of sending an SMTP message using echo/piped input. (Uses SMTP notification settings for server details)
  • Added a script to convert a user’s filesystem from device names to UFS labels, for easier portability in case the disk device changes names (e.g. adX to adY, adX to daY, or adX to adaX). ONLY FOR FULL INSTALLS. NanoBSD already uses labels

Mais pode ser lido nesses 2 links abaixo: - 2.1-RELEASE - Gold Subscription

Mãos à obra e um bom fim de semana para todos.  :)

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FreeBSD 10.0 ALPHA1 liberado

Posted by gondim | Posted in FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 13-09-2013

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Glen Barber enviou um e-mail para as listas freebsd-current e freebsd-snapshots avisando sobre a primeira liberação ALPHA do ciclo que dará origem ao FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. O FreeBSD 10 virá com muitas novidades:

Overall system / architectural changes

LDNS and Unbound will replace BIND:

  • Unbound and LNDS will replace BIND as the system’s DNS resolver and tools. BIND will of course always be available from ports.

GCC is no longer built as part of the base system:

  • GCC is no longer a part of the default base system on architectures where CLANG is used instead. CLANG is used on i386 and AMD64.

VPS Support:

  • Virtual Private Systems for FreeBSD (VPS) is an extension of the VIMAGE concept to the rest of the kernel (OS-level virtualization, similar to jails), and can e.g. migrate live VPSs from one host to another.

Unmapped VMIO buffers:

  • The use of the unmapped buffers eliminate the need to perform TLB shootdown for mapping on the buffer creation and reuse, greatly reducing the amount of IPIs for shootdown on big-SMP machines and eliminating up to 25-30% of the system time on i/o intensive workloads.

Raspberry Pi support:

  • With little work, FreeBSD is now able to run on the Raspberry Pi platform!


  • “bhyve” is the BSD Hypervisor, developed from scratch to offer a light-weight low-level HVM virtualization on FreeBSD. It supports virtio for IO paravirtualization.

Superpages for ARMv6/v7:

  • Superpages support provides improved performance and scalability by allowing TLB translations to dynamically cover large physical memory regions. All ARMv6 and ARMv7-based platforms can take advantage from this feature.

General ARM improvements:

  • FreeBSD/arm has been greatly improved, including support for ARMv6 and ARMv7, SMP and thread-local storage (TLS). Additionally support for some newer SoC like the MV78x60 and OMAP4 was added.


  • The default ABI on ARM is now the ARM EABI. This brings a number of improvements and allows future support for VFP and Thumb-2.

Kernel, hardware support & other low level improvements:

Atomic close-on-exec:

  • Add various APIs that set the close-on-exec flag atomically with allocating a file descriptor. These can be used to avoid undesirably passing file descriptors to child processes if threads or signal handlers call fork and exec. Some software starts to depend on these features.

Support for AMD GPUs kernel-modesetting:

  • It will allow the use of newer xf86-video-ati drivers and AMD GPUs.

Support for the RDRAND random number generator:

  • RDRAND is the new Intel’s CPU instruction for accessing its hardware random number generator, also known as the code-name Bull Mountain. It is present in Ivy Bridge and newer CPUs.


  • “virtio” is the name for the paravirtualization interface developed for the Linux KVM, but since adopted to other virtual machine hypervisors (with the notable exception of Xen). This work brings in a BSD-licensed clean-room implementation of the virtio kernel drivers for disk (block and SCSI) IO, network IO, PCI and memory ballooning. Tested with on Qemu/KVM, VirtualBox, and BHyVe.

Variable symlinks:

  • The support for variable symbolic links (varsym) has been ported from DragonflyBSD, supporting automatic expansion of per-process, per-jail or system-wide variables in symbolic file links.

Networking improvements:

ipfw support for setting/matching DSCP:

  • Add ipfw support for setting/matching DiffServ codepoints (DSCP) in IP header (former TOS field). Setting DSCP support works for both IPv4 and IPv6 packets. DSCP can be specified by name (AFxy, CSx, BE, EF), by value (0..63) or via tablearg. Matching DSCP accepts several classes at once (af11,af22,be).

SMP-friendly pf firewall:

  • The pf firewall, originally from OpenBSD, got upgraded to support fine-grain locking and better utilization on multi-cpu machines, which allows it to perform significantly faster.

CARP rewrite.


  • NetMap is a framework for high-performance direct-to-hardware packet IO, offering low latency and high PPS rates to userland applications while bypassing any kernel-side packet processing. With NetMap, it is trivially possible to fully saturate a 10 Gbps network interface with minimal packet sizes.

Up to 65536 routing tables:

  • Until now FreeBSD only supported up to 16 different routing tables. With this changes up to 65536 are supported.

Wireless Improvements:

Concurrency/SMP work:

  • net80211 has had issues on preemptive, multi-core CPUs. A lot of these race conditions have been found and fixed in -HEAD. The important fixes have been backported to 9.x.

Improved 802.11n stack support:

  • The net80211 stack has had numerous 802.11n improvements, including (but not limited to) better handling of 802.11n BAR TX frames and 802.11n options. It also correctly supports 1, 2 and 3 stream 802.11n configurations (although no public driver as yet supports 3-stream 802.11n operation.)

802.11s mesh support:

  • The 802.11s support is being continuously updated to the release specification rather than earlier draft specifications. Although this doesn’t yet support 802.11n, the aim is to be specification compliant and complete by 10.0-RELEASE.

Atheros PCI/PCIe 802.11n support:

  • The Atheros driver, HAL and rate control code has undergone some significant development work to support 802.11n.
    • This includes:
      • Fixing many SMP/concurrency races;
      • Teaching the HAL about 802.11n rates;
      • Teaching the ath_rate_sample rate control module about 802.11n, as well as the required rate control API changes;
      • Implementing 802.11n TX aggregation, including software retransmissions, BAR handling and other required features.
      • Although there are a few features still under development (notably AP power save mode), both AP and STA operation is stable enough for home use and testing. (Read: more than just the author is using this feature.)

Storage subsystems’ improvements:

New iSCSI stack:

  • The new iSCSI stack is kernel-mode and focused on reliability and interoperability.

ZFS NOP-write optimization:

  • The zio nop-write improvement from Illumos was imported into -CURRENT. To reduce I/O, nop-write skips overwriting data if the checksum (cryptographically secure) of new data matches the checksum of existing data. It also saves space if snapshots are in use.
  • It currently works only on datasets with enabled compression, disabled deduplication and sha256 checksums.

Online growfs(8) for r/w-mounted UFS filesystems:

  • UFS filesystems can now be enlarged with growfs(8) while mounted read-write. This is especially useful for virtual machines, allowing the addition of more harddrive space without interruption of service.

ZFS TRIM support:

  • As a world’s first, FreeBSD now has TRIM support in ZFS! UFS has already had TRIM support for some time.

LZ4 compression support in ZFS:

  • LZ4 is a new, very fast compression algorithm ( which improves ZFS compression/decompression performance by up to 50%/80% compared to the default LZJB (

FUSE support in the base system:

  • A state of the art FUSE implementation is now part of the FreeBSD base system. It allows the use of nearly all fusefs file systems under FreeBSD without installing the unstable “fusefs-kmod” kernel module from ports. Most notable is the “ntfs-3g” implementation of Windows NTFS.
  • FUSE is the userland file system API developed for Linux. The FreeBSD port (including the clean-room BSD-licenced reimplementation of the kernel module) was created during 2 summer of code mandates and being revived by gnn recently. The functionality in this commit matches the content of fusefs-kmod port, which doesn’t need to be installed anymore for -CURRENT setups.

Desktop-related changes:

USB Audio 2.0:

  • USB Audio support was upgraded to support version 2.0. New devices should support higher bandwidth, increased sampling frequency and wider dynamic range.

Other changes:

  • Maximum username (login) length increased to 32 characters:
  • vmxnet3 VMWare paravirtualized network driver committed:
  • Efficienty improvements in network-related kernel data structures:
  • Improvements in parallel GEOM processing, using direct dispatch in simple cases:
  • Efficiency improvements in the virtual memory system:,
  • CAIA Delay-Gradient (CDG) congestion control algorithm for TCP:
  • Since the ports tree has also been converted to Subversion from CVS, the cvs program has been removed from the base system (it is still available in the ports): Instead, svnlite ( and svnup ( are available.
  • ZFS now has L2ARC compression (
  • Newly created UFS file systems will have faster fsck operation:
  • GEOM_LABEL creates labels based on disk ID strings:
  • Faster booting by using a better read cache:
  • 64-bit ino_t, allowing file systems with a really huge number of files:
  • Shared memory pages between kernel&userland for faster interaction:
  • Clang 3 will be the default compiler for FreeBSD 10:,
  • New timecounter infrastructure: RADclock,
  • ZFS fault monitoring and management daemon,
  • NVM Express drivers: nvme(4) and nvd(4),
  • unbound (validating, recursive, and caching DNS resolver) included ?,
  • counter(9) API that implements fast and raceless counters, provided (but not limited to) for gathering of statistical data:,

ISO do FreeBSD 10.0 ALPHA1 aqui.

Maiores referências aqui.


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FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE está chegando.

Posted by gondim | Posted in Dicas, FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 12-09-2013



Glen Barber anunciou na lista freebsd-stable com cópia para FreeBSD Release Engineering Team, a liberação do 9.2 RC4. Espera-se que seja o último RC antes do lançamento final do 9.2-RELEASE.

Abaixo as mudanças do RC4 em relação ao RC3:

  • Revert the tribute boot loader logo as the default logo.
  • Fix a filesystem bug that would cause removed files to fail to dereference vnodes until the filesystem was forcibly unmounted and remounted.
  • Fix a rtadvd(8) segmentation fault on service reload.
  • Create and correct ownership and permissions of /var/authpf in the standard mtree.
  • Fix a NFS deadlock.
  • Stop SIOCSIFADDR, SIOCSIFBRDADDR, SIOCSIFDSTADDR and SIOCSIFNETMASK at the socket layer rather than pass them on to the link layer without validation or credential checks.  [SA-13:12]
  • Prevent cross-mount hardlinks between different nullfs mounts of the same underlying filesystem.  [SA-13:13]
  • Fix the length calculation for the final block of a sendfile(2) transmission which could be tricked into rounding up to the nearest page size, leaking up to a page of kernel memory. [SA-13:11]

Uma ISO para instalação pode ser baixada aqui.


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BSD Magazine – Mês de Setembro

Posted by gondim | Posted in Dicas, FreeBSD, Software Livre, Tecnologia | Posted on 11-09-2013

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BSD Magazine é uma revista mensal de excelente qualidade técnica, visual e gratuita para todo e qualquer profissional que queira ficar bem informado sobre tecnologia e informação utilizando BSD e outros Softwares Livres. A revista encontra-se em idioma Inglês e para baixá-la basta informar o seu e-mail e clicar para baixar. Todas as outras edições anteriores também podem ser baixadas. Seu formato está em pdf.

  • It’s lonely at the top
  • MidnightBSD Custom Installations and Live CDs
  • BSD Server Maintenance
  • Re-purposing an Abandoned Mac Mini as a Wireless Router with OpenBSD
  • Monit – Monitoring solution for enterprise and SOHO servers with FreeBSD
  • FreeBSD Programming Primer – Part 8
  • A closer look at the changes in PC-BSD/TrueOS 9.2 – Part 2 – Directory encryption using PEFS
  • Intro to ZFS
  • FreeBSD on XenServer


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